也谈谈主动表被动

也谈谈主动表被动

请大家看看这道题:

The pen __________ quite smoothly.

A. writes B. is written C. has written D. is to be written

此题应选A。英语中有些及物动词在用作不及物动词时,虽然形式上为主动,但意义上却是被动,这种用法主要见于一般现在时的情况(有时也可能是将来时、进行时等):

Meat cuts easily. 肉容易切。

The book sells well. 这书销路好。

My coat caught on a nail. 我的衣服被钉子钩住了。

This kind of cloth washes very well. 这种布很耐洗。

Good leather will wear for years. 好的皮革可以穿好几年。

The book is printing. 这本正在印刷。

The house is building. 房子正在建筑中。

The book is selling well. 这书销路好。

尽管以上各例有时也可以直接使用被动语态形式:

Good leather will be worn for years.

The book is being printed. (优德官方网站)

但是在实际运用中,用主动表被动的情况更普遍。不过值得注意的是:像本题所涉及的这样的例子却只能用主动表被动:The pen writes quite smoothly. (这笔写起来很流畅),因为若直接用被动语态:*The pen is written quites moothly. 那么它相应的主动语态即为:*He writes the pen quite smoothly. 这显然是荒唐的。

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