经济学人:民粹主义政策:对移民强硬是对是错(02)

Boys born in London's Chelsea can expect to live nearly nine years longer than those born in Blackpool.

出生在伦敦切尔西的孩子可以期望比出生在布莱克普尔的孩子多活接近9年。

Opportunities are limited for those stuck in the wrong place, and the wider economy suffers.

对于身陷错误地区的人而言,机会是有限的,而涉及面更广的经济体却深受其害。

If all its citizens had lived in places of high productivity over the past 50 years, America's economy could have grown twice as fast as it did.

如果其全体公民在过去的半个世纪中都居住在高生产力地区,美国经济可能会以两倍之快的速度增长。

Divergence is the result of big forces.

差异是几大力量的结果。

In the modern economy scale is increasingly important.

在现代经济中,规模愈发重要。

The companies with the biggest hoards of data can train their machines most effectively; the social network that everyone else is on is most attractive to new users; the stock exchange with the deepest pool of investors is best for raising capital.

拥有最大数据储备的公司能够最有效地训练它们的机器;其他人都在上面的社交网络最吸引新用户;拥有最深的投资者蓄水池的股票交易所最利于筹集资金。

These returns to scale create fewer, superstar firms clustered in fewer, superstar places.

这些规模的回报在越来越少的、超级明星般的地区造就出越来越少的、超级明星般的公司。

Everywhere else is left behind.

剩下的地区被落在了后面。

Even as regional disparities widen, people are becoming less mobile.

在地区差异拉大的同时,人们正变得少了不那么流动了。

The percentage of Americans who move across state lines each year has fallen by half since the 1990s.

自上世纪90年代以来,每年都跨州流动的美国人的比例下降了一半。

The typical American is more footloose than the average European, yet lives less than 30 kilometres from his parents.

一般而言,美国人比普通欧洲人更能够四海为家,然而他们却住在离父母不到30公里的地方。

Demographic shifts help explain this, including the rise in two-earn-er households and the need to care for ageing family members.

人口变化有助于解释这一点,以及双职工家庭和对照顾上了年纪的家庭成员的需求的增加。

But the bigger culprit is poor policies.

但是,更大错误是糟糕的政策。

Soaring housing costs in prosperous cities keep newcomers out.

富裕城市中飞涨的住房成本将新人拒之门外。

In Europe a scarcity of social housing leads people to hang on to cheap flats.

在欧洲,社会住房的稀缺导致人们困守廉价公寓。

In America the spread of state-specific occupational licensing and government benefits punishes those who move.

在美国,州里所特有的职业注册与政府福利惩罚的是流动之人。

The pension of a teacher who stays in the same state could be twice as big as that of a teacher who moves mid-career.

呆在同一个州里的教师的养老金可能是在执教期间四处流动的教师的两倍之多。

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