经济学人:"人脑PK计算机" 人类智慧的褪色?(01)

Technology Quarterly

科技季刊

Technology Quarterly on language: Brain scan: Terry Winograd

科技季刊:脑部扫描:特里·威诺格拉德

The Winograd Schema tests computers' “understanding” of the real world.

Winograd模式测试计算机对真实世界的“理解能力”。

The Turing Test was conceived as a way to judge whether true artificial intelligence has been achieved.

图灵检测被认为是判断真正的人工智能是否实现的一种方法。

If a computer can fool humans into thinking it is human, there is no reason, say its fans, to say the machine is not truly intelligent.

人工智能的粉丝们说,如果计算机能让人类认为他们是人,那么便没有理由说机器不具备真正的人工智能。

Few giants in computing stand with Turing in fame, but one has given his name to a similar challenge: Terry Winograd, a computer scientist at Stanford.

在计算机大神中,很少有人能与图灵的名声比肩媲美的,但是斯坦福大学的计算机科学家Terry Winograd发起了一个以自己名字命名的类似挑战。

In his doctoral dissertation Mr Winograd posed a riddle for computers: “The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they feared violence.

他在博士论文中给计算机提出了一个难题:“城市议员拒绝给示威者许可,因为他们害怕暴力。

It is a perfectillustrationof a well-recognised point: many things that are easy for humans are crushingly difficult for computers.

这是对一个众所周知的观点的完美解释:那就是许多事情对人们来说很容易,对机器来说却十分困难。

Mr Winograd went into AI research in the 1960s and 1970s and developed an early natural-language program called SHRDLU

Winograd在20世纪60年代和70年代一直在进行了人工智能的研究,并开发了一个名为SHRDLU的早期自然语言程序,

that could take commands and answer questions about a group of shapes it could manipulate:

它可以接受命令和回答关于一组它可以熟练使用的形状的问题:

“Find a block which is taller than the one you are holding and put it into the box.”

比如“找到一个比你手中拿着的更高的方块放入盒子。”

This work brought ajolt of optimism to the AI crowd, but MrWinograd later fell out with them,

虽然这项工作给人工智能研究员带来了一些希望,但是随后维诺格拉德先生放弃了制造机器,

devoting himself not to making machines intelligent but to making them better at helping human beings.

转而致力于使智能机器更好地帮助人类。

(These camps are sharply divided by philosophyand academic pride.)

(这两个派别的产生是由于哲学和学术荣誉观点存在明显差异。)

He taught Larry Page at Stanford, and after Mr Page went on to co-found Google, MrWinograd became a guest researcher at the company, helping to build Gmail.

他是Larry Page在斯坦福大学的老师,Page同人合作创建Google后,Winograd成为公司的客座研究员,帮助构建谷歌邮箱。

英文文本来自经济学人 译文来自栏目二第五组

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