经济学人:Bartleby专栏:管理者可以向三位国家领袖学习(01)

Business leaders often have a poor opinion of politicians, preferring to find their heroes elsewhere—in other boardrooms or on the coaching field.

商业领导人通常对政治家的评价很低,他们宁愿在别处—在其他会议室里或是在培训领域—寻找自己的英雄。

But running a country is an even greater test of leadership and character than running a corporation.

但是相比开公司,领导一个国家是对领导能力和性格的一场更大的考验。

Those who have passed through the fire surely have something to teach modern-day managers.

那些经历过真金白银考验的领导人当然可以传授一些经验给现代的这些管理者。

Take three of the most feted national leaders: Otto von Bismarck, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill.

以最受人们爱戴的三位国家领导人为例:奥托·冯·俾斯麦、富兰克林·罗斯福以及温斯顿·邱吉尔

Many will object both to what they achieved and to the violence they used. But their successes and failures hold lessons for CEOs.

很多人会对他们的成就和他们所使用的暴力持反对意见,但是CEO们需要从他们的成功和失败中吸取教训。

Bismarck was an old-school Prussian aristocrat. But he proved remarkably flexible and imaginative during nearly three decades in office.

俾斯麦是一位保守派的普鲁士贵族。但事实证明在他执政的近30年中,他是一位处事灵活且富有创造力的领导人。

As a manager, he had a clear goal—to unite Germany under his king (who became Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1871).

作为管理者,他有着一个清晰的目标—在国王的统治下,统一德国(该位国王于1871年成为了德皇威廉一世)。

This required him to overcome the suspicions of other German states, which he did by uniting them against a series of enemies,

实现这个目标需要打消其他德邦联国家的疑虑,而他做到了,他将联邦统一起来共同对抗

from Denmark through Austria to France—a merger strategy that allowed Germany to compete on equal footing.

那些从丹麦越过奥地利来到法国的敌人—这样一个合并的策略让德国得以平等竞争。

Bismarck also proved flexible when it came to domestic policy.

在谈及国内政策时,俾斯麦还是一个很灵活的人。

Though no social reformer, he worried about the danger of working-class support for socialism.

尽管没有社会改革家,但他还是担心工人阶级会支持社会主义。

So he pushed through a series of welfare measures in the 1880s, including old-age pensions and health insurance.

因此在十九世纪八十年代,他促成了一系列福利措施,包括退休金和健康保险。

He understood the benefits of social responsibility long before CSR departments became a thing.

早在人们意识到社会责任部门的重要性前,他就明白了社会责任的益处。

Like many corporate empire-builders, however, he overreached—in his case by annexing Alsace-Lorraine from France.

和很多企业帝国建造者一样,只不过他超越了他们—他从法国要来了附属地阿尔萨斯-洛林。

But his less capable successors were less disciplined still; it was they who led Germany down the path to disaster.

但是他的继任者们能力弱且没纪律性,正是他们带领着德国走向灾难。

Where Bismarck built a successful conglomerate, Roosevelt proved to be a consummate turnaround artist.

俾斯麦建立起了一个成功的集团,而罗斯福则是一名炉火纯青的扭转危难的艺术家。

Like the Prussian, FDR showed plenty of flexibility. Although he campaigned for office on the promise of a balanced budget,

和这位普鲁士人一样,富兰克林·罗斯福处事也非常灵活。虽然,他在竞选时承诺要平衡预算,

he adapted when circumstances required it to become the first Keynesian leader.

但当形势要求他成为首位凯恩斯主义领导人时,他也很快适应了。

Economists will probably spend the rest of history debating the merits of his various policy measures.

历史学家可能将在剩下的历史中争论罗斯福各种政治措施的优点。

But like an executive who rescues a failing company, he showed the power of leaders to change the mood,

但是就像一位拯救破产公司的管理者一样,他展现出了领导者转变形势的能力,

notably with his inaugural declaration that "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself."

尤其是他在就职宣言中所说的“我们唯一需要恐惧的就是恐惧本身。”

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